WHERE ARE YOU FROM? is a general question about your origin, heritage or nationality. 

A: "Where are you from?" B: "Oslo, Norway. Where are you from?"

You often ask this question when you meet somebody for the first time and just want to know the place they are from.

A: "Nice to meet you, Rajesh. Where are you from?" B: "Mangalore, India. You?"

WHERE DO YOU COME FROM? can mean the same as 'Where are you from?', or it can be a more specific when you want to know a little more about the person's background/heritage/ancestors/lineage/ethnicity, etc.

A: "You seem interesting, where do you come from? B: "Now that you have asked, I come from a middle-class family based in Mangalore, a place famous for its Udapi cuisines." 

Some people use the questions interchangeably. 

"They mean the same to me, and both are natural. I hear 'I'm from..." more often than 'I come from...."

That said, to many users the word 'come' implies 'somewhere not here' — after all, to have come here you must have come from somewhere. In contrast, 'Where are you from?' is neutral in assumption as to whether or not the person asked is from here or elsewhere. 

"Since you're not from here, where are you from?"

Because of that implication, 'Where do you come from?' can be either more or less polite than 'Where are you from?', depending on context — particularly on whether or not the person asked has identified themselves as being from somewhere else. 

"'I'd say 'come from (e.g London)' is quite common in ESL UK English courses."

Asking someone who has identified themselves as from elsewhere where that elsewhere is, is considered to be showing a polite and even flattering interest in them. 

A: "I'm new here." B: Oh, where do you come from?" A: "Novosibirsk, Siberia."

Asking someone who has not identified where they came from — when they might have been born right here — can be tantamount to calling them a foreigner, and suggesting they are unwelcome.

A: "What's your name again? Rajesh? Radesh?? Razesh??? Whatever. I don't think I know you, do I? Where do you come from?"

It can be embarrassing to assume that a person of a certain ethnic background must come from some other place, since a lot of people are descended from immigrants now. Some may take offense, interpret it as racist or at least get annoyed at having to explain 'No, I really am American/British/Australian, etc." 

"I'd only ask a question like this if I knew or believed the person didn't grow up in the area where they currently live." 

Additionally, it may sound a bit awkward and outdated to some users. 

A: "Where do you come from?" B: "I come from a land beyond the sea, overrun by trolls and dragons!"

According to Google Ngram, 'Where do you come from' was more common until about 1970.

"In meaning there is no difference - in usage I'd say that - where are you from?- is more commonly heard than - where do you come from?"

AmE seems to have used it first - it became more common there in about 1965, but not until about 1984 in BrE.

"Both questions are sufficiently interchangeable so you can get away with exchanging them freely."

All in all, most users agree that 'Where do you come from?' is more specific, while 'Where are you from?' is more neutral and, therefore, much more common.

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