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We learn to speak before we learn to write, and speech is a naturally acquired skill, whereas we have to be taught to read and write. For these reasons, linguists refer to the primacy of speech. The inability to write or read is certainly a social disadvantage, but the inability to speak is a fundamental deprivation. We can use different techniques to attract our audience and keep their attention. Some examples of these are: 



1. PARALLELISM. 
Parallelism is popular in proverbs and idioms. 
* What you see is what you get. 
* If you can’t beat them, join them. 
* Easy come, easy go. 

Parallelism involves the use of phrases, clauses or sentences with a similar grammatical structure. Earl Spenser began his speech at the funeral of his sister Diana (the former Princess of Wales) with the following sentences: "I stand before you today the representative of a family in grief, in a country in mourning, before a world in shock." Here the parallel phrases are A FAMILY IN GRIEF, A COUNTRY IN MOURNING AND A WORLD IN SHOCK. 
Parallelism helps to create a strong, emphatic rhythm, and it can be used to stress key ideas. In this example, the extent of the grief caused by Diana's death is emphasised (the progression from family to country to world). 



Winston Churchill who'll refer to examples of his speeches in all 4 paragraphs, simply because he's my hero and true genius in spoken and written English.
“We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.” 




2. REPETITION. 
This can be of single words or of complete phrases or sentences. As with parallelism, the effect is often to emphasise important words or ideas and to create a powerful rhythm. Repetition can give a speech cohesion( the term refers to the techniques used to connect different part of a speech with each other) as in the famous Martin Luther Kind speech where he repeated the words "I HAVE A DREAM".



"We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.” W. Churchill. 



3. CONTRAST AND ANTITHESIS. 
A balanced rhythm is created by the use of words and phrases that contrast in some way. Antithesis is an especially powerful kind of contrast, as the words involved have directly opposite meanings. Abraham Lincoln addressed at the Gettysburg military cemetery in 1863. "The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." You can see the contrast here: living -dead, add-detract, little-long, remember-forget, we say here- what they did here. 
“Decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all-powerful to be impotent.” Winston Churchill. 




4. TRIPLING. 
Many of the speeches resonate today, and historians and biographers continue to grapple with Churchill’s approach to speaking and use the language. In fact, Churchill believed a strong oratory could be developed. This was probably because Churchill did not see himself as a natural speaker, but rather one who worked hard to hone his craft. So he did, and he did it well. Unlike most modern politicians, Churchill was a phenomenal writer and wrote all his own speeches. 



Three-part lists ( also known as 'sets of three') have a memorable rhythm and often feature in speeches. In a wartime speech, Winston Churchill referred to BLOOD, TOIL, TEARS AND SWEAT. This is a four-part list, but over the years it has become a well-known expression, modified to the more easily remembered set of three: BLOOD, SWEAT AND TEARS. In fact, those words are printed it on a 5-pound note in the UK.

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